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早餐重要吗?

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译者:MaZhuzu 原文作者:Terence Kealey
发布:2017-06-16 15:24:02 挑错

Is breakfast really toast?

早餐真的重要吗?

Is breakfast really the most important meal of the day? Like many nutritional scientists, professor and biochemist Terence Kealey doesn’t think so. His controversial new book has reignited the debate

早餐真的是一天中最重要的一餐吗?像很多营养科学家一样,生物化学家特伦斯·基莱教授并不这样认为。他备受争议的新书再次激起了辩论。

Why does breakfast have its own PR? Nobody tries to encourage us to eat lunch, and a sense of disapproval can hang over too large a dinner, but breakfast? Oh, it’s the most important meal of the day and we should eat it like a king.

为什么早餐有它自身的影响呢?没人会试图鼓励我们去吃午餐,也并不推崇晚餐吃太多,但是早餐呢?它是一天中最重要的一餐,我们应该吃得像国王一样。

The words “breakfast is the most important meal of the day” first appeared a hundred years ago, in 1917, in Good Health, the oldest health magazine in the world, which was edited by ... Dr John Kellogg. Yes that Dr Kellogg, from Michigan, the man who in 1894, with his brother Will, invented cornflakes.

“早餐是一天中最重要的一餐”这句话最早出现在一百年前,即1917年在世界上最古老的健康杂志Good Health上,该杂志由约翰·凯洛格医生编辑。没错,就是那个来自密歇根的凯洛格医生,他在1894年和兄弟威廉发明了玉米片。

Cornflakes were the original processed food. As Felicity Lawrence wrote in her 2008 book Eat Your Heart Out, to flake the corn “the nutritious germ with its essential fats is first removed because, as the Kellogg brothers discovered all that time ago, it goes rancid over time and gets in the way of long shelf life”.

玉米片是原始的加工食品。正如费莉希蒂•劳伦斯在她2008年的书Eat Your Heart Out中写道,要把玉米加工成薄片,“营养胚芽和它基本的脂肪首先被去除,因为,就像凯洛格兄弟当时发现的一样,它会随着时间推移而变质并缩短保质期”。

Today, therefore, breakfast cereals are consumed as nutritionally-depleted calorie- and carbohydrate-fests, laden with sugar, starch and milk, and it is hard to think of a less healthy dish than a pre-packaged industrially- processed ready-to-eat cereal to set before the king.Public Health England reported this week that children are eating three times as much sugar as they should, and that the rot sets in with breakfast which, by providing on average the equivalent of three cubes or 11 grams of sugar, supplies in itself half the recommended daily intake. No wonder people suppose that eating the cardboard package would be safer than eating the carbohydrate cereal.

结果如今早餐谷物片成了摄入营养贫乏热量及碳水化合物的盛筵,富含糖、淀粉和牛奶,很难想象它会比摆在国王面前的预包装工业加工的即食谷物更没有营养。这周,英国公共卫生署报告说,儿童摄入的糖是他们本该摄入量的3倍,而在早餐中则供给每日推荐摄入量的一半,提供平均相当于3块方糖或11克糖的摄入量。难怪大家认为吃硬纸包装比吃碳水化合谷物更安全。

But bread and honey are no better either, because science shows that morning is a uniquely dangerous time to eat. We wake in the mornings because a hormone called cortisol rises at daybreak, and though this hormone wakes us up, it also raises our blood glucose levels. Nobody knows why it does that, yet since raised blood glucose levels are dangerous, and since most people tend not to be hungry in the mornings, that lack of morning hunger seems to be nature's way of protecting us from a dangerous meal.

面包和蜂蜜也没有那么好,因为科学表明早晨是一个特别危险的进食时间。我们早晨醒来是因为一种叫做皮质醇的激素在黎明时升高,这种激素唤醒了我们的同时,也升高了我们的血糖水平。没人知道为什么会这样,但是血糖水平升高是危险的,而大多数人往往在早上并不饿,所以早晨缺乏饥饿感似乎是保护我们远离危险食物的自然方式。

I discovered the dangers of breakfast in 2010 when, at the age of 58, I was diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Anyone can buy inexpensive blood glucose testing kits at their local chemist, and when I tested my blood glucose levels I discovered they rose alarmingly after breakfast but only modestly after other meals. And because I am both a doctor and a biochemist, it was easy for me to find that the scientific journals had confirmed that danger. Yet those findings are being ignored by the mass of dieticians, who – like many scientists and technologists throughout history – seem reluctant to acknowledge their attachment to error. Indeed, the research papers show that breakfast is dangerous for everyone, not just diabetics.

我在2010年发现了吃早餐的危险,当时我58岁,被诊断出Ⅱ型糖尿病。每个人都可以在当地的药店买到便宜的血糖检测工具,当我测试我的血糖水平时,发现早餐后我的血糖上升得很厉害,但在其他餐后却很轻微。因为我是医生,同时也是生物化学家,我很容易就发现科学期刊已经证实了吃早餐的危险。但是,这些发现却被营养师们忽略了,就像历史上很多科学家和技术专家一样,他们似乎不愿意承认自身对错误的依赖。事实上,研究表明,不仅仅是糖尿病患者,早餐对每个人来说都是危险的。

So, for example, it is a myth that breakfast induces such fullness or satiety that people eat less at lunch. Every experimental study shows that breakfast only adds to the total calories a person consumes. Even worse, because of the cortisol-induced morning spikes in glucose, breakfast can actually fuel hunger, and the consumption of many a mid-morning muffin or mid-afternoon teacake can be traced back to the metabolic trauma that is breakfast.

因此,早餐会引起饱腹感,从而让人们午餐吃得少一些,这种说法是错误的。每一项实验研究都表明,早餐只会增加一个人需要消耗的总热量。更糟的是,由于皮质醇引起的葡萄糖上午尖峰,早餐可以引起饥饿,从而使人们消耗许多上午或下午茶点心,这可以归咎于早餐代谢性创伤。

The global market for breakfast cereals is huge (sales are expected to reach $43.2bn annually by 2019) and to support their marketing, cereal companies will fund research that purportedly supports the benefits of eating a big meal first thing. But when researchers do proper science (ie, actual experiments) and when they test breakfast on people, they find only the consumption of excess calories.

早餐谷物在全球有很大的市场(到2019年,预计销售额将达到每年432亿美元),为了支持他们的营销,谷物食品公司将资助研究来证明大清早猛吃一餐的所谓好处。但是,当研究人员进行适当的科学研究时(例如:真实实验),当他们在人身上测试早餐时,只发现摄入了过量的卡路里。

Two thirds of the people of North America or Britain are today overweight or obese, and soon no fewer than 10 percent of us will suffer from type 2 diabetes: that we should be encouraged to eat an unnecessary meal is, therefore, little short of a scandal.

如今,有2/3的北美人或英国人超重或肥胖,很快我们中多于10%的人会患上Ⅱ型糖尿病:我们还被鼓励吃一顿不必要的食物,就几乎是一个丑闻了。

There are, of course, people who cannot function without breakfast, just as there are people so nauseated by food in the mornings that they will not eat a crumb. But most people are malleable about breakfast, which they will eat if instructed but, equally, which they would skip if instructed. Most people, indeed, if left alone, would probably fall into the weekend habit of eating only two meals a day, brunch and supper, which is healthier than our current three-meals-a-day habit. The Mediterraneans of the Mediterranean Diet, moreover, generally skip breakfast.

当然,有些人在不吃早餐的情况下无法正常工作,就像有些人早晨对食物感到恶心,他们连一口面包屑都不会吃。然而,对于早餐大多数人并无主见:让他们吃他们就会吃,反之亦然。事实上大多数人,如果独自一人,可能会进入周末饮食习惯,即一天只吃两顿饭:早午餐和晚餐。这比我们目前的一日三餐的习惯更健康。此外,保持地中海饮食习惯的地中海人通常跳过早餐。

My book is directed at people who eat breakfast out of a misplaced sense of biochemical duty. It is also directed at the minority who believe they cannot function without it because it reveals how they might learn to skip it and so discover more energy over the course of the day.

我的书是针对那些出于一种错位的生化责任感而吃早餐的人。同样也针对小部分认为没有早餐不能工作的人,因为它还提供了如何跳过早餐,从而在一天中发挥更多能量。

Breakfast Is A Dangerous Meal by Terence Kealey is out now, published by 4th Estate.

特伦斯·基莱所著《早餐是危险的一餐》现已由4th Estate出版公司发行。


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共计8条评论
passerby98发表于:2017-06-17 07:21:27

【现在,早餐谷物以营养消耗卡路里和碳水化合物的合成物形式摄入】Today, therefore, breakfast cereals are consumed as nutritionally-depleted calorie- and carbohydrate-fests,其中therefore的意思漏了;关于后缀-fest的含义可参阅:https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/-fest,不应解作【合成物形式】;【营养消耗卡路里】令人费解;原句有夸张不妨变通一下:“结果如今早餐谷物片成了摄入营养贫乏热量及碳水化合物的盛筵”。

【难怪人们认为吃硬纸包装食物比吃碳水化合谷物更安全】No wonder people suppose that eating the cardboard package would be safer than eating the carbohydrate cereal,原句没有【食物】的意思。“难怪大家认为吃硬纸包装比吃碳水化合谷物更安全”。

【但是大多数人对吃早餐是有适应性的,如果早餐有益,他们会吃,但同样的,如果有害,他们也会不吃】 But most people are malleable about breakfast, which they will eat if instructed but, equally, which they would skip if instructed,其中malleable用【适应性的】不太合适(其义项是:“(人)温顺的,易受影响的,顺从的
If you say that someone is malleable, you mean that they are easily influenced or controlled by other people”);instructed与【有益】、【有害】也离得较远。“然而,对于早餐大多数人并无主见:让他们吃他们就会吃,反之亦然”。

【市场】marketing应解作“营销”。

【谷物食品公司将资助一项研究,据称首先会支持吃大餐的益处】cereal companies will fund research that purportedly supports the benefits of eating a big meal first thing,原句里找不到与【一项】相对应的意思(很可能有很多项);短语first thing(https://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/first-thing)不应解作【首先】。“谷物食品公司将资助研究来证明大清早猛吃一餐的所谓好处”。

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wangxixi发表于:2017-06-17 15:17:35
passerby98:【现在,早餐谷物以营养消耗卡路里和碳水化合物的合成物形式摄入】Today, therefore, breakfast cereals are consumed as nutritionally-depleted calorie- and carbohydrate-fests,其中therefore的意思漏了;关于后缀-fest的含义可参阅:https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/-fest,不应解作【合成物形式】;【营养消耗卡路里】令人费解;原句有夸张不妨变通一下:“结果如今早餐谷物片成了摄入营养贫乏热量及碳水化合物的盛筵”。

【难怪人们认为吃硬纸包装食物比吃碳水化合谷物更安全】No wonder people suppose that eating the cardboard package would be safer than eating the carbohydrate cereal,原句没有【食物】的意思。“难怪大家认为吃硬纸包装比吃碳水化合谷物更安全”。

【但是大多数人对吃早餐是有适应性的,如果早餐有益,他们会吃,但同样的,如果有害,他们也会不吃】 But most people are malleable about breakfast, which they will eat if instructed but, equally, which they would skip if instructed,其中malleable用【适应性的】不太合适(其义项是:“(人)温顺的,易受影响的,顺从的
If you say that someone is malleable, you mean that they are easily influenced or controlled by other people”);instructed与【有益】、【有害】也离得较远。“然而,对于早餐大多数人并无主见:让他们吃他们就会吃,反之亦然”。

【市场】marketing应解作“营销”。

【谷物食品公司将资助一项研究,据称首先会支持吃大餐的益处】cereal companies will fund research that purportedly supports the benefits of eating a big meal first thing,原句里找不到与【一项】相对应的意思(很可能有很多项);短语first thing(https://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/first-thing)不应解作【首先】。“谷物食品公司将资助研究来证明大清早猛吃一餐的所谓好处”。

@passerby98:【谷物食品公司将资助一项研究,据称首先会支持吃大餐的益处】cereal companies will fund research that purportedly supports the benefits of eating a big meal first thing这里“purportedly据称”同位语从句解释的是research这个词,而不是修饰benefits一词,所以翻译成“所谓好处”欠妥,原文翻译“研究据称”会更准确一些

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MaZhuzu发表于:2017-06-19 11:56:09
passerby98:【现在,早餐谷物以营养消耗卡路里和碳水化合物的合成物形式摄入】Today, therefore, breakfast cereals are consumed as nutritionally-depleted calorie- and carbohydrate-fests,其中therefore的意思漏了;关于后缀-fest的含义可参阅:https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/-fest,不应解作【合成物形式】;【营养消耗卡路里】令人费解;原句有夸张不妨变通一下:“结果如今早餐谷物片成了摄入营养贫乏热量及碳水化合物的盛筵”。

【难怪人们认为吃硬纸包装食物比吃碳水化合谷物更安全】No wonder people suppose that eating the cardboard package would be safer than eating the carbohydrate cereal,原句没有【食物】的意思。“难怪大家认为吃硬纸包装比吃碳水化合谷物更安全”。

【但是大多数人对吃早餐是有适应性的,如果早餐有益,他们会吃,但同样的,如果有害,他们也会不吃】 But most people are malleable about breakfast, which they will eat if instructed but, equally, which they would skip if instructed,其中malleable用【适应性的】不太合适(其义项是:“(人)温顺的,易受影响的,顺从的
If you say that someone is malleable, you mean that they are easily influenced or controlled by other people”);instructed与【有益】、【有害】也离得较远。“然而,对于早餐大多数人并无主见:让他们吃他们就会吃,反之亦然”。

【市场】marketing应解作“营销”。

【谷物食品公司将资助一项研究,据称首先会支持吃大餐的益处】cereal companies will fund research that purportedly supports the benefits of eating a big meal first thing,原句里找不到与【一项】相对应的意思(很可能有很多项);短语first thing(https://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/first-thing)不应解作【首先】。“谷物食品公司将资助研究来证明大清早猛吃一餐的所谓好处”。

@passerby98:谢谢您的耐心指正,自己翻译的时候也觉得理解的有问题,现在明白了。

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MaZhuzu发表于:2017-06-19 12:13:05
wangxixi:@passerby98:【谷物食品公司将资助一项研究,据称首先会支持吃大餐的益处】cereal companies will fund research that purportedly supports the benefits of eating a big meal first thing这里“purportedly据称”同位语从句解释的是research这个词,而不是修饰benefits一词,所以翻译成“所谓好处”欠妥,原文翻译“研究据称”会更准确一些

@wangxixi:谢谢您的评论,这里的“所谓”应该是增译的,并不是认为“purportedly”修饰“benefits”,而是没有译这个词。那把“据称”提前可不可以呢?“据称,谷物食品公司将资助研究来证明大清早猛吃一餐的所谓好处”。

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meihelen发表于:2017-06-19 17:28:10
MaZhuzu:@wangxixi:谢谢您的评论,这里的“所谓”应该是增译的,并不是认为“purportedly”修饰“benefits”,而是没有译这个词。那把“据称”提前可不可以呢?“据称,谷物食品公司将资助研究来证明大清早猛吃一餐的所谓好处”。

@MaZhuzu:好像不能这样提前,这样的话“据称”修饰的就是动词“资助”,或者更准确地说是后面这整句话了。似乎可以考虑变通一下,改为“谷物食品公司资助的研究会报称大清早猛吃一餐对人有益”。这里词性与原文不同,但我觉得意思上说得过去,因为 will fund research 实际上是肯定他们会做这种研究的。

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lxdhk发表于:2017-06-19 17:30:22

现在已经发行第四版了/published by 4th Estate.  ???

4th Estate是出版公司的名字 http://www.4thestate.co.uk/books/

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MaZhuzu发表于:2017-06-19 22:14:12
lxdhk:现在已经发行第四版了/published by 4th Estate.  ???

4th Estate是出版公司的名字 http://www.4thestate.co.uk/books/

@lxdhk:谢谢指正!孤陋寡闻+想当然,看成了4th Edition。

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MaZhuzu发表于:2017-06-19 22:15:55
meihelen:@MaZhuzu:好像不能这样提前,这样的话“据称”修饰的就是动词“资助”,或者更准确地说是后面这整句话了。似乎可以考虑变通一下,改为“谷物食品公司资助的研究会报称大清早猛吃一餐对人有益”。这里词性与原文不同,但我觉得意思上说得过去,因为 will fund research 实际上是肯定他们会做这种研究的。

@meihelen:对对,当时这样问了后自己也觉得不太妥。

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