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平等的力量:女性如何平衡家庭和工作

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译者:yuanchan 原文作者:The Economists
发布:2017-04-20 21:50:20 挑错

The world would be a much richer place if more women had paying jobs. Joan Riversa, a comedian who died last year, did not let chores get in the way of a career in show business. “I hate housework,” she joked. “You make the beds, you do the dishes, and six months later, you have to start all over again.”

如果更多女性拥有有偿工作,世界将变得更加富裕。去年去世的喜剧演员Joan Riversa没有让家务妨碍她的演艺事业。她曾戏谑道,“我讨厌家务。整理床铺、洗完,且半年之后还得再来一遍。”

An escape from unpaid drudgery into paid work seems a distant prospect for millions of women. In South Asia, for instance, women carry out up to 90% of unpaid care work, including cooking, cleaning, and looking after children and the elderly. They are far less visible than men in work outside the home. Women make up less than a quarter of the paid workforce in India and account for just 17% of GDP, a measure of output that excludes unwaged work. By contrast, women contribute 41% of GDP in China.

对无数女性而言,从无偿的繁重的家务劳动逃离,投入到有偿的工作中,似乎遥不可及。例如在南非,女性承担多达90%的无偿家务活儿,包括做饭、打扫、照看小孩和老人。在家庭之外的工作中,她们远不如男性常见。在印度,女性占有偿劳动力的不到1/4,不包括无偿劳动的情况下,仅贡献GDP的17%。相比之下,中国女性对GDP的贡献达41%。

A new report from the McKinsey Global Institute (MGI), a think-tank, underlines how gender inequality in work and society is itself distributed unequally across the world. The number-crunchers at McKinsey calculated gender-parity scores—gauges of how women fare at work and in society in comparison with men—covering over 90% of the world's population. They reckon South Asia (India excluded) is the global laggard with a score of 0.44 (a score of one represents perfect parity between the sexes). Richer parts of the world do a lot better but are still a long way from complete gender equality. North America and Oceania, the best-ranked region, has a score of 0.74. It is hard to put a number on the social costs of this but the McKinsey folk take a stab at estimating the loss of economic output that goes with it. Other studies find that countries could boost their GDP by 5-20% if women's participation in the workforce was on a par with men's.

来自智囊团麦肯锡全球研究所的一项新的报告强调,工作和社会中的性别不平等本身在世界范围内的分布是不均衡的。麦肯锡的数值计算机计算了性别等值分值,计算与男性相比女性在工作和社会中所获的待遇,样本覆盖了世界人口的90%。他们认为南亚国家(不包括印度)位列全球最后,为0.44分(1分代表男女性别被完全等同对待)。相对富裕的地区情况相对较好,但要达到完全的性别平等,仍有很长的路要走。北美洲和大洋洲位居前列,仅为0.74分。 很难说这一情况带来的具体社会成本,但麦肯锡公司仍试图评估随之带来的经济损失。其它研究发现,如果女性参与工作的人数和男性相等,GDP将提高5%至20%。

But that captures only part of the lost output. Even in rich bits of the world, where women are close to half the paid workforce, they tend to work fewer hours than men and in jobs with lower productivity, not to mention lower pay as a result of pure discrimination. If the gender gaps in participation, hours worked and productivity were all bridged, the world economy would be $28.4 trillion (or 26%) richer, McKinsey reckons. The potential gains are proportionately greater in places where fewer women are in paid work. India, for instance, could be 60% richer.

但这仅仅能挽回部分损失。即便是在世界上的富裕地区,女性接近有偿劳动力的一半,她们的工作时长往往比男性短,工作产出也往往比男性少,更不用说由于纯粹的性别歧视导致她们相对收入较低。麦肯锡公司认为,假设因性别造成的工作参与率、工作时长和工作产出都补平,世界经济的收益将会变得多28.4万亿(26%)美元。在女性有偿工作参与率较低的地区,潜在的收益将会按比例增加得更多。比如,印度能达到比目前富裕60%。

A more realistic target is for countries to close their gender gaps at the rate achieved by the country in their region with the best recent record in this respect. That would add $12 trillion to global output by 2025, according to McKinsey's calculations, other things being equal (which they almost certainly will not be). The policies that would quicken a closing of the gender gap at work, such as keeping girls at school for longer and providing better legal protections for women, are in the gift of government. Women whose level of education is on a par with men are more likely to find well-paid jobs in technical professions. They are also more likely to share unpaid work more equitably with men—or, at least, to be able to claim, as Riversa did, that the dullest chores can wait for another six months.

各国的一个更现实的目标是缩小性别差异,速度可向最近在这一方面成绩最好的地区看齐。根据麦肯锡公司的数据,在其它情况相等的情况下(它们大多肯定不相等),到2025年这将使全球经济增加12万亿美元。政府政策的出台会加快弥补工作中的性别差异,例如延长幼年女性的受教育年限,为女性提供更好的法律保护。受教育程度和男性相同的女性,更有可能在技术性较强的职业中,寻找到待遇更好的工作。她们也越有可能和男性更平等地分担无偿的工作,或者至少像Riversa那样声称,最无聊的家务可以再等上半年。



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