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"零工经济"是指依托互联网,由工作量碎片化的自由职业者构成的经济领域。"互联网+"时代衍生出的新就业模式层出不穷。这些新就业模式,使人力资源得到充分利用,劳动者可以相对自由地安排工作时间,企业通过工作外包也降低了长期用工成本,根据工作量灵活调整用工量和生产经营方向,弥补了传统用工的不足。

【哈佛商评】零工经济会消灭办公室吗?

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译者:Jenny_Peng 原文作者:Diane Mulcahy
发布:2017-03-18 18:06:50 挑错

The gig economy, where independent consultants, contractors, and freelancers create portfolios of work in lieu of one full-time job, is transforming the way we work by disconnecting work from an office. In the traditional jobs economy, employers often require employee attendance in the office five days a week, eight hours a day. Gig economy employers, in contrast, focus entirely on performance, not attendance in the office. It doesn’t matter if the idea for how to solve a problem or the insight to craft a new strategy is generated inthe middle of the night, or while showering, or in yoga class. The gig economy employer values the quality of worker results, not the process by which they are created.

零工经济时代下,独立咨询师、合同人和自由工作者不再单凭一份全职生存,而开始兼职一系列临时工。零工经济正在改变我们工作的方式,使我们逐渐和办公室脱离。传统职业经济下,雇主通常要求雇员办公室出勤,每周五天,一天八小时。对比之下,零工经济时代下的雇主不在乎办公室出勤,完全只关注绩效。你可以在半夜,或洗澡时,或瑜伽课上突然找到的解决问题的办法或制定新策略的灵感,这些他们都不关心。零工经济时代的雇主重视的是员工创造的价值,不管过程如何。

The most impactful lesson that traditional companies can learn from the gig economy is to judge all workers, including employees, on their results, not on when and where they do their work.

传统企业应该最应该向零工经济时代学习的是,在评价所有员工,包括合同雇佣工时,标准应该定为他们的绩效,而非何时何地工作。

Not one study suggests that working in an office eight hours a day, five days a week maximizes employee productivity, satisfaction, or performance. In fact, any data that exists on work in an office reveals that most employees aren’t engaged, waste a lot of time in the office not working, and that employee underperformance persists despite the omnipresence of management. Even worse, the direct costs of maintaining the traditional office-based workplace are high. CBRE estimates that the typical company in the U.S. spends upward of $12,000 per employee per year for office space. It’s hard to find a meetings is unlikely to be how your company’s strategic or product issues are best solved. Nor is it likely to be the most effective way to create your marketing message, manage your back office, or maintain secure information systems. Our greatest insights and most productive work are often generated outside the constraints of the corporate workweek and the cube.

当然,当大多数工作依赖时间和地点时,也存在关注员工工作时间和地点的情况。工厂工人,体力劳动者,和零售店、餐厅或医院的员工要保持工作效率时,就必须在具体的时间工作在工作场所。脑力工作者并非如此。坐在办公桌旁,或坐在会议室参加没完没了,效率极低的会议,这些并非解决在公司战略或产品问题的最好方法。这也并非创造营销信息,管理后勤办公室,或维持信息系统安全的最有效的方式。我们的洞察力和创造性往往源自于公司工作日和办公室的束缚之外。

Study after study after study demonstrate that independent, remote workers are more productive, satisfied, and engaged than their office-bound colleagues. Recent surveys of 8,000 workers by McKinsey’s Global Institute and nearly 900 independent workers by Future Workplace and Field Nation find that those workers, freed from the constraints of office life, report higher levels of satisfaction and greater productivity.

一系列的研究表明,自由、远程办公的员工工作效率更高,对工作满意度更高,比束缚在办公室的同事更敬业。近日,麦肯锡全球学会(McKinsey Global Institute),未来工作场所公司(Future Workplace)和专业国度(Field Nation)分别对8,000名员工和900名左右自由工作者进行了调查,他们发现脱离办公室生活束缚的员工表现出了更高水平的满意度和工作效率。

These results aren’t surprising since remote work eliminates the wasted time of commuting, the stress of constant exposure to office politics, and the death of the workday by a thousand paper cuts of interruptions and meetings. Yet somehow, despite evidence of the many benefits of independent flexible work, our office-based, five-days-a-week, time-in-the-cube approach to work still persists at many companies.

这样的结果并不令人感到意外,因为远程办公不仅节约了往返办公室浪费的时间,而且消除了长期处于办公室政治下带来的压力,也不用体验被别人或零零散散的会议打扰的痛苦。然而,许多企业仍然无视自由灵活工作到来的诸多好处,要求员工一周五天地坐在办公桌旁办公。

Why is that? Managers and human resource executives at traditional office-based firms respond to this question with narratives and anecdotes about trust, collaboration, and team-building, but offer nothing in the way of evidence – even from their own companies – to support their stories. The evidence that does exist suggests that trust and effective teams are built primarily through interpersonal behavior and communication, not constant proximity from working in the same office space.

这什么会这样呢?作为回应,传统办公模式公司里的经理和人力资源师经常举例有关信任、互助和团队合作的故事,但从来不谈证据——甚至是来自他们自己公司的证据——来支撑所讲的故事。当然证据也不存在,这侧面说明信任和高效的团队主要是通过人际交往和沟通建立起来的,而不是在长期在同一办公室工作就能做到的。

At least one reason to maintain an office and require employees to work in it is that most managers enjoy working at a company in which employees are managed by time and place. After all, it’s pretty easy to see who is at their desk between 9 and 5. It’s much harder to develop, measure, and evaluate the specific value and results that each employee produces. Managers will have to work a lot harder under a system that focuses on tracking performance, instead of time in an office chair.

坚持要求员工在办公室办公的理由至少有一个,那就是大多数经理喜欢通过时间和地点来管理员工的公司。毕竟,很容就就可以看见谁从早上9点到晚上五点工作在办公桌旁。要发展、考核、和评估每个员工的具体价值和绩效就相对困难了。如果公司体系关注员工绩效,而不是坐在办公椅上的时间,那么经理在这样的体系下就必须更努力工作。

There is also a middle ground emerging between office-based and remote work. New studies show that workers who seek the structure of an office-based environment and the camaraderie of colleagues are much happier in co-working spaces than either a traditional office or working at home.

办公室办公和远程办公之间又开始出现了一个中间点。最新研究表明,比起在传统办公室或在家办公,寻求基于办公室的办公环境和同事友谊的员工在共同工作空间(co-working spaces)幸福感更强。

Co-working options offer workers the best of both worlds – the control, autonomy, and scheduling flexibility of remote work combined with optional access to the structure and community of an office, if and when the worker wants it. For companies, co-working spaces turn commercial real estate into a variable expense item available at a lower cost.

共同工作空间给员工提供了两个美好世界——远程办公的自控自主安排的灵活,以及办公室办公的自由切换。对公司而言,共同工作空间将商业房产变成了一个低价的可变空间大的物件。

The rewards are great for companies that prioritize performance over attendance in the office: more productive, efficient, and satisfied workers, management focused on results and deliverables instead of face time, a healthier corporate culture based more explicitly on merit, and lower, more variable real estate and facility costs.

将绩效的重要性放在办公室出勤之上,企业的汇报会很丰厚:员工生产率更高、效率更高、满意度更高,管理注重绩效而非出勤,基于价值的企业文化更健康,以及房产和设施费用可变空间大。

Labor is the most expensive and valuable resource at most firms. Managing this resource by time and place is a crude, empirically unproven, inefficient, and costly approach. The biggest lessons that companies can learn from the gig economy are to separate work from the office, and to measure employees based on what they produce, deliver and solve, not the hours they spend in the office. Put simply, companies need to stop measuring what doesn’t matter, and start measuring what does.

对大部分企业来说,劳动力是最昂贵也是最有价值的资源。通过时间和场所来管理这种资源是一种粗犷,经验上不科学,无效率可言,且代价巨大的方式。企业最应该向零工经济学习的是,分离办公和办公室,考核员工要基于其所创造的价值,完成的工作,以及解决的问题,而不是在办公室里度过的时长。简单而言,企业应该停止考核次要的,关注重要的。


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