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讲述终身学习面临的挑战和危机。

【评论就送每期《经济学人》电子刊】《经济学人》杂志(2017年1月14日出版,周刊(14-20日))之封面文章《终身学习》翻译第1稿(共14段)

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译者:juriswupeng
发布:2017-01-16 20:56:31 挑错

《经济学人》杂志(2017年1月14日出版,周刊(14-20日))之封面文章《终身学习》翻译第1稿(共14段)

Lifelong learning

Itis easy to say that people need to keep learning throughout their careers. The practicalities are daunting

第1段:

WHEN education fails to keep pace with technology, the result is inequality.

Without the skills to stay useful as innovations arrive, workers suffer—and if enough of them fall behind, society starts to fall apart.

That fundamental insight seized reformers in the Industrial Revolution, heralding state-funded universal schooling. 这一基本的洞察抓住了(启发了)工业革命中的改革者,预示着国家出资兴办普遍教育(训练劳动者)的来临。

Later, automation in factories and offices called forth a surge in college graduates.之后,在工厂和车间的自动化在大学毕业生中唤起一个浪潮。

The combination of education and innovation, spread over decades, led to a remarkable

flowering of prosperity.教育和创新之间的连接,延续数十年,导致了一个非常显著的繁荣之花。

第2段:

Today robotics机器人技术 and artificial intelligence call for another education revolution.

Thistime, however, working lives are so lengthy and so fast-changing that simply cramming more schooling in at the start is not enough.这一次,然而,劳动年限是如此之长久且变化迅速,以至于简单的塞满更多教育进入,在开始时,是不够的。

 People must also be able to acquire new skills throughout their careers.人们也必须能够获得技能贯穿于他们的职业生涯中。

第3段:

Unfortunately, as our special report in this issue sets out, the lifelong learning that exists today mainly benefits high achievers—and is therefore more likely to exacerbate inequality than diminish it. 不幸的是,正如我们的特别报告在本期中指出的,这个发生在今天的终身学习主要使高成就者获益——以及(终身学习)因此更可能加剧不平等而不是减少(不平等)。

If 21st-century economies are not to create a massive underclass, policy makers urgently need to workout how to help all their citizens learn while they earn.如果21世纪经济不能创造出一个庞大的下层阶级,政策制定者迫切地需要解决:如何帮助所有市民们学习当他们挣钱(工作)的时候。

 So far, their ambition has fallen pitifully short.迄今为止,他们(市民们)的野心已经可怜地降低减弱了。

第4段:

Machines or learning

The classic model of education—a burst at the start and top-ups through company training—is breaking down. 传统的教育模式——开始时突击学学,然后在公司培训上追加教育——已经被打破了。

One reason is the need for new, and constantlyupdated, skills.Manufacturingincreasinglycallsforbrain workratherthan metal-bashing (see pages 20-22). The share of the American workforce employed in routine office jobs declined from 25.5% to 21% between 1996 and 2015. The single, stable careerhasgone the way ofthe Rolodex.

One reason is the need for new, and constantly updated, skills.一个原因是对新且不断更新的技能的需求。

Manufacturing increasingly calls for brain work rather than metal-bashing(see pages 20-22).

制造业越来越多地要求脑力劳动,而不是金属-撞击式的劳动(指体力劳动)。

The share份额 of the American workforce employed in routine office jobs declined from 25.5% to 21% between 1996 and 2015. 美国在日常办公中雇佣的劳动力的份额,从1996年的25.5%降到2015年的21%。

The single, stable career has gone the way of the Rolodex.那种单一的、稳定的工作已重蹈名片盒的覆辙。【为什么是名片盒的覆辙?典故?】

第5段:

Pushing people into ever-higher levels of formal education at the start of their lives is not the way to cope. 推动人们进入永续更高水平的正式教育,在他们生命的开始,不是用竞争的方式。

Just 16% of Americans think that a four-year college degree prepares students very well for a good job. 只有16%的美国人认为,四年大学教育能让学生准备得非常好,以适合一份好的工作。

Although a vocational education promises that vital first hire, those with specialised training

tend to withdraw from the labour force earlier than those with general education—perhaps because they are less adaptable.尽管职业教育保证了关键性的第一次雇佣,但是拥有独特训练的人,比那些只有一般教育的人,倾向于从劳动力大军中退出,——可能因为他们有更弱的适应能力。

第6段:

At the same time on-the-job training is shrinking.与此同时,在职训练正在萎缩。

第7段:

The market is innovating to enable workers to learn and earn in new ways.市场正在革新去促使工人以全新的方式学习、挣钱。

第8段:

Such efforts demonstrate how to interleave careers and learning.这些努力证明如何使职场与学习交错进行。

But left to its own devices, this nascent market will mainly serve those who already have advantages.但凭借着它拥有的机制,这一初期市场将主要服务于那些已经有优势的人。

It is easier to learn later in life if you enjoyed the classroom first time around: about 80% of the learners on Coursera already have degrees.如果你在生命早期享受过课堂,那你在人生的晚期将很容易继续学习:在Coursera上的大约80%的学习者已经拥有学位。

Online learning requires some IT literacy, yet one in four adults in the OECD has no or limited experience of computers.在线学习需要一些IT读写能力,然而亚太经合组织中1/4的成年人没有或仅有一点电脑经验。

Skills atrophy unless they are used, but many low-end jobs give workers little chance to practise them.技能会衰退除非它们被使用,但是许多低端工作给予工人极少使用它们的机会。

第9段:

Shampoo technician技师 wanted

If new ways of learning are to help those who need them most, policymakers should be aiming for something far more radical.如果新的学习方式能帮助那些异常需要这种新学法的人的话,那么政策制定者将瞄准制定更加根本性的政策。

Because education is a public good whose benefits spill over to all of society, governments have a vital role to play—not just by spending more, but also by spending wisely.因为教育是一项公共产品,它的溢出效益满足全社会,所以政府扮演关键的角色——不仅为教育支出更多,而且支出要更加智慧。

第10段:

Lifelong learning starts at school. 终身学习开始于学校。

As a rule, education should not be narrowly vocational .作为一个规则,教育不应该限制于行业。

The curriculum needs to teach children how to study and think. 课程需要教育孩子如何学习和思考。

A focus on “metacognition” will make them better at picking up skills later in life.关注于“元认知”将使得他们(孩子)更加优于获取技能,在其生命的后期。

第11段:

But the biggest change is to make adult learning routinely accessible to all. 但是最大的改变是使得成年人日常学习易获取了。

One way is for citizens to receive vouchers教育券 that they can use to pay for training.市民获取学习的一种方法是取得教育券,他们可以用之来支付训练费用。

 Singapore has such “individual learning accounts”; it has given money to everyone

over 25 to spend on any of 500 approved courses. 新加坡有一种叫“个体学习账号”的;它给予年满25周岁的人,用它来学习500门以上经核准认可的课程。

So far each citizen has only a few hundred dollars, but it is early days.迄今为止,每个市民拥有几百美元,但这只是早期。

第12段:

Courses paid for by taxpayers risk being wasteful. 纳税人购买的课程面临浪费的危机。

But industry can help by steering people towards the skills it wants

and by working with MOOCs and colleges to design courses

that are relevant.但工业能帮助(减少这种浪费),通过引导人们掌握他们想要的技能,和通过慕课网和设计课程的大学的运作。

 Companies can also encourage their staff to learn. 公司也可以鼓励他们的员工去学习。

AT&T, a telecoms firm which wants to equip装备 its workforce

with digital skills, spends $30m a year on reimbursing偿还

employees’ tuition学费 costs.

Trade unions can play a useful role as

organisers of lifelong learning, particularly for those—workers

in small firms or the self-employed—for whom company-provided

training is unlikely. 贸易联盟能发挥一个有用的角色作为终身学习的组织者,特别是为那些——在小工厂中和自我雇佣者之中的工人——公司为他们提供训练是不太可能的。

A union-run training programme in

Britain has support from political parties on the right and left.一种联合运行的训练项目在大不列颠,已经获得左派和右派政党的支持。

第13段:

To make all this trainingworthwhile, governments need to

slash the licensing requirements and other barriers that make

ithard fornewcomers to enteroccupations. Rather than asking

for 300 hours’ practice to qualify to wash hair, for instance, the

state of Tennessee should let hairdressers decide for themselveswho

is the best person to hire.

第14段:

Not everyone will successfully navigate the shifting jobs market.

不是每个人都将成功地航行于职业市场的转变。

 Those most at risk of technological disruption破坏 are men

in blue-collar jobs, many of whom reject taking less “masculine”

roles in fast-growing areas such as health care. 最受技术破坏的一群人是蓝领工人,他们中的许多人拒绝承担“男性的(主动)”角色,在快速增长领域,比如健康护理领域。

But to keep the numbers of those left behind to a minimum, all adults

must have access to flexible, affordable training. 但为了保持这个降到最低的数字,所有成年人都必须有机会受到灵活的、能承受得起的训练。

The 19th and 20th centuries saw stunning advances in education.19和20世纪看到教育震耳欲聋的进步。

 That should be the scale of the ambition today. 那应该是野心勃勃的当今所呈现的规模。


相关译文来自无觅插件
共计3条评论
donna0117发表于:2017-01-17 08:53:10

The single, stable career has gone the way of the Rolodex.人不学习就像机器一样会被淘汰,现在没什么人用Rolodex了。

回复

juriswupeng发表于:2017-01-17 15:51:12
donna0117:The single, stable career has gone the way of the Rolodex.人不学习就像机器一样会被淘汰,现在没什么人用Rolodex了。

@donna0117:谢谢!共同成长!

回复

Yoki Sun发表于:2017-03-20 22:29:50

People must also be able to acquire new skills throughout their careers.人们也必须能够获得技能贯穿于他们的职业生涯中。"must also"翻译成“还必须”更好更通顺一些

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