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如何设计专业的幻灯片?

译者: 禾木 原作者:JOSHUA JOHNSON
发表时间:2011-02-23浏览量:8912评论数:2挑错数:0
怎样让你的幻灯片成为令人赞叹的专业级作品?怎样让其成为presentation的绝佳助手?
We’ll break down every step of the design process, from choosing colors and images to using whitespace properly. After reading through this you should be all set to design your own beautiful presentation slides that will put your coworkers to shame.

从择色、选图,到正确使用留白区域,我们将剖析幻灯片设计的每个环节。通览此文之后,你必能设计出属于自己的精美幻灯片,令同事们自叹不如。

A Word About Content

I usually make a big deal about content preceding design, and presentations are no exception. Ideally, you’ll have the topic and much or all of the content outlined before you even think about design. This will in every way shape the appearance of your design, which is why working from pre-built templates isn’t always the best move (though generic templates can and do work great in some circumstances).

概括内容

通常,我会在设计内容导入上下很大功夫,做报告时也是如此。理想情况是,在设计幻灯片之前,你得明晰主题和内容大纲。这会决定幻灯片设计的各方各面,也是为什么选用预制模板并非总是最佳方案的原因(尽管在有些情况下,通用模板效果颇佳)。

 

The reason that I bring this up is that I don’t really have an actual presentation in mind for this project. I’ll be running with a basic theme, but the textual information will be entirely placeholder copy. Your image, font, color and layout selection shouldn’t necessarily match mine but instead reflect the topic and content you’re working with.

我之所以提起这个是因为对此心中并没有实际的幻灯片方案。我会使用一个基本主题,而文本信息将完全是占位符复制。你选择的图片,字体,颜色以及布局无需和我一致,相反,这些应该反映你所要呈现的主题和内容。

Choosing A Color Scheme

Before I even open Photoshop (yes, I design PowerPoint/Keynote slides in Photoshop and drop them in, thought it helps if you do the te), I want to find a color scheme on which to base my entire design. When I need to quickly find several colors that go together I usually start with Kuler. Not only is it a great way to build your own color schemes, it’s an outstanding source to find schemes built by others that you can just grab for your projects.

选择配色方案

即便在我打开Photoshop图形处理软件之前(是的,我用Photoshop软件来设计PowerPoint/Keynote幻灯片,然后再将其导入。如果你试试,便会发现确实不错。),我就希望找到一个配色方案来为整个设计奠定基调。当我需要快速寻找几种可相配的颜色时,我通常会先使用Kuler色彩工具。这不仅是个建立自己配色方案的好办法,还是借鉴他人配色方案以作已用的绝佳来源。

 

As luck would have it, I liked the very first color scheme I saw upon opening Kuler. “Keep the Change” was featured on the home page and looked like a great place to start for our presentation design.

说来也巧,打开Kuler所看见的第一个配色方案就令我十分喜欢。主页上的那句“不断改变”似乎表明了这能为我们设计幻灯片起个好头。

Now, if you wanted to get everything exactly right, you could make a list of the RGB or Hex values, but I prefer a quicker, more direct route. What I usually do is snap a screenshot of the color scheme, paste it into my document and stretch it across the canvas on its own layer for easy access. This way I can quickly activate the layer, eyedropper the color I want, then hide the layer and get back to work. It’s a bit like having a palette of colors to dip your paintbrush in.

现在,如果你想把一切都做好,那么你可以列一种三原色和颜色数值表。但是,我更倾向于另一种更为快捷继而直接的方式。通常我会对配色方案进行截图,然后将其复制到我的文档内,在将其图层在画板上展开,以方便操作。这样做我便可以很快激活图层,然后用吸管工具吸取我要的颜色,最后隐藏图层,接着设计幻灯片。这就像用画笔蘸着调色板里的颜料一样。

 

Designing Your Cover Slide

Now that we have a color scheme, the design work is going to be much simpler. One trick that designers often use in presentations is to leverage the color scheme as heavily as possible. If you’re new to design, you’ll likely think that this is too easy, too plain or even that it’s cheating somehow, but trust me, it’ll be much more attractive and professional than that horrid Microsoft clipart library you love so much.

设计首页

既然已经选定了配色方案,接下来的设计工作就简单的多了。设计者们常用的一个技巧就是尽可能多利用配色方案。如果你是个初学者,你可能会觉得这样做太过简单,太过单调了,甚至会觉得这是在糊弄人。但是相信我,这可比使用你常用的那些糟糕微软内置剪贴画要更吸引人,更专业。

To start, simply grab one of your colors from the scheme you chose and flood the background of your slide with it (I chose #631c25). Good job, there’s your background. Don’t freak out. It’ll look great. Now let’s throw in some typography.

既然已经选定了配色方案,接下来的设计工作就简单的多了。设计者们常用的一个技巧就是尽可能多利用配色方案。如果你是个初学者,你可能会觉得这样做太过简单,太过单调了,甚至会觉得这是在糊弄人。但是相信我,这可比使用你常用的那些糟糕微软内置剪贴画要更吸引人,更专业。

Choosing a Font

Font choice is a major issue for non-designers. The tendency is to think that most fonts are “boring” and to look around for something exciting and fun. This inevitably leads to the use of Comic Sans or some other equally hideous font.

选择字体

一般人都觉得选择字体很重要。现在的趋势是,人们认为大多数字体很单调便转而使用新鲜有趣的字体。这最终使得人们运用漫画字体和其他同样奇形怪状的字体。

 

Unless you’re an elementary school teacher, your presentations should never look like this. Instead, why don’t you try one of those “boring” fonts to see if you can come up with something you like.

除非你是个小学老师,否则你的幻灯片决不能这样。相反,为什么你不试一下用用这些单调的字体,看看这能否产生你喜欢的效果呢?

Combining fonts can be a tricky task and can take a trained eye to pull off. Fortunately, font designers have already created collections that work well together and if you’re not a designer, they make it easy to pull off great typography. The trick is to just stay in a family. Again, I know this sounds lame, but it works really well if you make sure the two styles you choose are very different.

混合使用不同字体是个技术活,只有培训过的人才能做好。幸运的是,字体设计者们已经设计了一些搭配效果不错的字体集。如果你不是个设计者,那么这些字体集能令你轻松完成出色的排版。技巧是要在同一个字体家族内选择。此外,尽管听上去不太靠谱,但是如果你确信所选择的两种风格是大相径庭的话,那么它们的混搭效果真的会很好。

For instance, I chose a Helvetica Bold Condensed and a Helvetica Light for my cover slide. Notice how different the fonts are from each other in terms of thickness. Choosing two styles that are relatively close causes visual confusion and should be avoided as a general rule of thumb. Instead, what you want is contrast and plenty of it.

例如,我为首张幻灯片选的字体是 Helvetica Bold Condensed 和 Helvetica Light这两种字体。注意这两种字体之间的区别就在于颜色浓度的不同。通常就经验而言,两种风格相对接近会引起视觉混淆因而需避免使用。相反,你所需要的是大量运用对比。

Alignment and Layout

Notice a few things about the way I set up this slide. First, I used a strong left alignment for the text. As I say in just about every design article I write, center alignment should be a last resort, not a first. It tends to be the weakest text alignment that you can choose, having a hard edge increases readability considerably (notice that book pages aren’t center-aligned).

对齐与布局

注意我设置幻灯片的几点。首先,我将文本设为左对齐。正如我在所有幻灯片设计的文章里所说的,居中对齐应该是你的最后选择而非首选。居中对齐是最差的文本对齐方式。排列整齐,边缘分明的文本会明显增强其可读性(注意书页从不以居中方式对齐)。

Also, notice the generous whitespace that I used. Remember that you don’t have to eat up every inch of space. Giving your text room to breathe helps your layout immensely and gives the design a clean look.

此外,注意我所使用的空白区域。记住你并不需要将所有的空间都加以使用。留些空白,让文本看上去更舒适,这能使你的布局显得开阔,从而打造整洁的幻灯片设计。

Adding an Image

t this point you might be wondering why you wasted your time reading so I could give you such plain advice. The truth is, most people that create presentations could improve them by 100% from following the advice above. However, I realize minimalism may be too extreme for some folks so let’s throw in an image to make it look nice.

插入图片

现在你可能在想自己为什么要浪费时间来看这些普通的建议。事实是,大多数设计幻灯片的人都能通过以上建议100%提高自己的设计技能。然而,我意识到对于一些人而言,极简主义可能走了极端。那么,就让我们插入些图片来来幻灯片更漂亮些吧。

Since our text is on the left, I wanted to find something a little heavy on the right. The general theme that I’ll go for is “City photos” assuming I had some sort of architecture or city-centric presentation to give. Again, you’ll have to choose iamges relevant to your own topic.

由于文本在左边,所以我希望右边有些显眼的东西。假设我所做的报告与建筑或城市有关,那么我会选择“城市图片”作为总主题。还是如此,你得选择和自己主题相关的图片。

I grabbed this Flickr Creative Commons image from photographer Ben Spreng.

由于文本在左边,所以我希望右边有些显眼的东西。假设我所做的报告与建筑或城市有关,那么我会选择“城市图片”作为总主题。还是如此,你得选择和自己主题相关的图片。

Now, if we just made this image our background, the text would become unreadable and we would be ditching our color scheme. What we’re going to do instead is set it on top of the colored slide and set our blending mode to Overlay. Then throw your opacity to around 45%.

现在,如果我们只把这张照片设为背景,那么本文便会无法辨读,而且我们也会破换配色方案。我们所要做的应该是将图片放置在幻灯片的顶层,然后将混合模式设为叠加,再将不透明度设为45%左右。

As you can see, this helps the slide look much more interesting but keeps the text and colors fairly intact. It’s a simple solution that adds a lot of interest to an otherwise plain design.

你可以看到,这样幻灯片看上去更加丰富,但同时又使得文本和各种颜色彼此不相干。这个简单的方法为原本平淡的设计增添了不少趣味。

Adding Content Slides

The cover may seem like it’s only a tiny part of the battle, but you’ve actually already set the tone for the entire presentation. You’ve got your theme, color scheme and fonts already in place. Now you just need to set up a few different layouts for your content.

插入主体幻灯片

设计幻灯片首页似乎只完成了整份工作中的一小部分,但是实际上你已经为整个幻灯片定下了基调。你已经设定了主题,配色方案和字体。现在需做的便是为内容设定不同的布局。

The thing to keep in mind is to keep everything extremely simple, and that includes the level of content that you include. Apart from design, these are just good presentation tactics that you’ll learn in every public speaking class. Filling your slides with everything you’re going to say makes you unnecessary. You could just email everyone the slides and shut up.

务必令一切都极简化,包括选定的内容。除了设计之外,这些是你在所有公共演讲课堂上会学到的报告技巧。你不必将所有要说的东西都放在幻灯片上,这样还不如把幻灯片电邮给所有人。

Instead, the slides are merely meant to be a visual aid. Show a slide with your overall topic or main point, then speak the rest, without reading. Nothing is worse than watching a guy read his note cards word-for-word for thirty minutes, except perhaps watching a guy turn his back to the audience so he can actually read his slides out loud to you the whole time! You may laugh, but I’ve seen it happen folks.

相反,幻灯片只是视觉辅助工具。将主题和主要内容呈现在幻灯片上,然后表述剩下的内容,而非朗读。看着一个人在30分钟里一字不差地吧要点卡片上内容读出来,或是在整个报告过程中背向观众以便大声读出幻灯片上的内容,没有是么比这更糟糕了。但是,我的确碰到过这种情况。

For our first content slide, we’ll grab another Flickr photo and set it to the bottom portion of our slide at full bleed. Then we’ll set the top to another color from our scheme and toss in some text using the same exact formatting that we used on the cover.

我们会从Flickr中选择另一张图片放到首张主题幻灯片中,将其以全出血(印刷术语,印刷图象超出纸张四边的部分。由于几乎没有印刷机可以在纸张过边缘进行印刷,帮所有四边必须裁切掉)方式放置幻灯片底层。接下来从配色方案中选择另一种颜色,将其置于顶层,然后按照首页的格式输入文本。

See how this closely resembles the theme we’ve already established while still looking significantly different? This is they key to good presentation design: cohesiveness without redundancy.

看到了吗,这就能与我们确定的主题相似同时又明显有所区别。好幻灯片设计秘诀就在此:内容互相呼应,简练不冗余。

Now for our third slide, we can simply do the inverse of the second slide with a new color and a new image.

在制作第三张幻灯片时,我们只需将制作第二张幻灯片的步骤反过来,并运用新的颜色和图片。

Adding Informational Elements

It would be nice if every slide ever presented could work in a full bleed image, but the truth is that this simply isn’t practical. It will often be the case that you’re presenting graphical information or some other item that isn’t necessarily a photo.

加入信息元素

如果每张幻灯片都能以全出血图片的形式呈现,那再好不过。但是这是不现实的。然而通常,你会展示图片信息或非图片信息。

My advice here is to try to stick as close to your theme as possible. For the slide below I flooded the entire background with a solid color from our original scheme and made a quick 3D graph with white columns (I drew a few flat boxes in Illustrator and applied a 3D effect).

对此,我的建议是尽量贴近主题。我会将最初设定的配色方案中的一种纯色最为下张幻灯片的背景,然后利用白色方框框很快地制作一张3D图片(我用Illustrator画出方框,再添加3D效果)。

As you can see, this slide is very information-focused and yet it doesn’t sacrifice the aesthetics and simplicity we’ve already established.

如你所见,这张幻灯片信息突出,同时颇具美感,简洁大方,和之前的设计一致。

You’re All Set

From here you might come up with one or two more alternate slide designs and then rotate between them for the duration of your speech. The result is a presentation that is beautiful, very readable and highly professional. The bonus is that the simple, straightforward design will probably result in less work than a clip-art-filled horror show.

一切就绪

现在开始,你或许会再做几张备选的幻灯片,以便在你演讲时可以播放。最终你的报告将富有美感,内容易读,而且十分专业。和满是剪贴画的幻灯片相比,简单直接的设计能减轻你的工作量。

Most of the time, great design doesn’t mean being particularly artistic or knowing how to create amazing complex layouts. Instead, it’s about presenting information in an attractive and user-friendly way. With this goal in mind you realize that you’re probably trying way too hard if your end result is ugly. Try cutting out half or more of the elements on one of your slides and giving what’s left a strong left or right alignment with plenty of whitespace.

大多数时候,一流的设计能以吸引人和用户友好的方式呈现信息,而并不是意味着特别具有艺术感或是设计极为复杂的布局。记住这点,那么当成果槽糕时,你就会意识到自己可能做得过了头了。试着将其中一张幻灯片一半或更多的内容删去,将剩下的内容设置为左对齐或右对齐,并留下足够的空白空间。

Conclusion

I hope this article has convinced you to abandon that clip art gallery once and for all. The benefits of clean, minimal design in presentations are clear: the information is easier to take in and the end result is more professional than the mess of information you typically see in presentation slides.

总结

我希望这篇文章能让你从此抛弃剪贴画。幻灯片干净,简洁的设计所带来的好处显而易见:和通常幻灯片中乱糟糟的信息相比,其信息更容易为人所接受,效果更为专业。

相关译文来自无觅插件
surestar
2011-02-23 23:17
译得不错,很实用的资料
风鸣幽谷
2011-02-25 09:05
很有用,让我了解到adobe kuler这个有用的工具。
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