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中国决定缩小长江保护区面积

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译者:ringohan 原文作者:MICHAEL WINES
发布:2011-12-31 09:03:03 挑错
December 29, 2011

2011年12月29日

China Proceeds on Plan for Disputed Yangtze Dam

中国继续进行存在争议的长江大坝计划

By MICHAEL WINES

By MICHAEL WINES

BEIJING — The Chinese State Council has removed a crucial roadblock to building one of the nation’s most contentious hydroelectric dams, dealing a decisive defeat to environmentalists critical of the project — and showcasing the clout of one of the most powerful and ambitious politicians in China.

北京——中国国务院已经清除一项关键障碍,为建设该国最富有争议的水电大坝项目之一的工程扫清了道路,这是对该工程持批评态度的环境主义者决定性的打击,同时也显示了作为中国最有权力与雄心政治家之一的人物的巨大影响力。

In a little-noticed ruling made public on Dec. 14, the council approved changes to shrink the boundaries of a Yangtze River preserve that is home to many of the river’s rare and endangered fish species. The decision is likely to clear the way for construction of the Xiaonanhai Dam, a $3.8 billion project that environmental experts say will flood much of the preserve and probably wipe out many species.

在12月14日公布的一项很少为人注意的决定中,国务院同意对有关缩小一处长江保护区边界的变化建议,这个保护区是长江许多珍稀及濒危鱼类的栖息地。该决定可能为建设造价为38亿美元的小南海大坝项目扫清了障碍。专家们说,这个项目将淹没这个保护区的大部分,并有可能消灭许多鱼类。

“This is almost the last reserve for the whole river basin, especially after the construction of Three Gorges,” the world’s largest hydroelectric project, said Qiaoyu Guo, Yangtze River project manager for the Nature Conservancy in Beijing. “There will be very dramatic damage to these kinds of species.”

在北京的自然保护组织长江项目经理郭乔羽(音译)说,“这个保护区几乎是整个流域最后一个保护区,特别是三峡工程建设之后。将对这些物种构成极为严重的损害。”三峡工程是世界上最大的水电项目。

The decision is a big victory for Bo Xilai, the Communist Party secretary of Chongqing, the central Chinese megalopolis where the dam will be built. Plans for the dam, one of Mr. Bo’s pet projects, were suspended by the central government in 2009 under pressure from environmental critics.

此项决定也是中国中部直辖市重庆领导人的重大胜利,该大坝就建在重庆境内。2009年,迫于环境批评人士的压力,中国政府暂停了这项薄先生十分喜爱的大坝工程。

The dam’s apparent revival adds to Mr. Bo’s long list of economic achievements since becoming Chongqing’s party secretary in 2007. And it offers him another bragging point in what many people call a barely concealed campaign to win a seat on China’s most powerful ruling body, the Standing Committee of the Politburo, when seven of its nine members retire next year.

大坝项目的明显复活给2007年以来重庆取得的一系列经济成就单上又增添了新的内容。这项成就为该地领导人提供了又一个值得夸耀的成绩,成为该地领导人进入中国领导核心的又一重要步骤,在许多人看来这种努力几乎没有什么掩饰的。明年,中国核心领导层将换届。

The 16.6 percent rise in Chongqing’s gross domestic product in 2011 is the nation’s best, Xinhua, the state news agency, reported Thursday, up from the No. 5 spot when Mr. Bo took power. The region’s growth will continue to outstrip that of its competitors in 2012, the Chongqing Daily newspaper quoted Mr. Bo as predicting last Saturday.

国家新闻机构新华社周二报道,2011年重庆的GDP增幅为16.6%,在中国排名第一,而2007年为第五。《重庆日报》援引该市最高领导人周六的预测时说,2012年重庆的经济增长将继续超过其竞争对手。

“Chongqing wants this dam very much,” Ms. Guo said. “It will be a very big investment, it will help increase the G.D.P. for the short term, and they also say they need a more stable water supply.”

“重庆非常希望建设这座大坝,”郭先生说。“这将是一项非常大的投资,在短期内可以帮助经济增长,他们还说需要更加稳定的水源供应。”

The Xiaonanhai Dam cannot be started until the Chinese Environment Ministry approves an assessment of the dam’s impact, which critics say should back experts’ predictions that the fish reserve will be wiped out. But the Chinese State Council’s decision to reduce the reserve boundaries strongly suggests that a favorable assessment has been predetermined, some environmental experts said in interviews.

只有通过中国环境部的大坝环境估评后,小南海工程才能开工。批评人士说,环境部的环保评价应该支持专家们关于鱼类的保护地将会消失的预测。然而,一些环境专家在采访中说,中国国务院关于减小保护区边界的决定强烈表明,事前已经确定环境估评将有利于该项目。

Chinese environmental groups and the Nature Conservancy have waged a long battle against the Xiaonanhai Dam, one of 19 dams proposed or under construction on the upper reaches of the Yangtze. The dams will turn the river from a swift-running stream that drops from its source in Qinghai Province, three miles high, into a series of large, slow-moving lakes.

中国环保组织和“自然保护”组织了一场反对修建小海南大坝的运动,在长江上游拟建或正在建设的还有18个大坝。这些大坝将把这条河流从海拔3英里青海省源头流下的湍急河流变成一连串面积很大流速很慢的湖泊。

The projects are part of a frenetic and much-criticized rush into hydroelectric power by the Chinese government, which, with 26,000 such dams, already has more than any nation in the world. At 1,760 megawatts, the Xiaonanhai project is comparatively small by Yangtze standards, but still three-quarters the size of the Hoover Dam, Scientific American reported in 2009.

中国已经有了2.6万水坝,数量超过世界上任何其他国家,中国政府因以几乎疯狂的步伐投入水电开发而备受批评,这些项目就是匆忙开发水电计划的一部分。小海南水电站设计水电为176万千瓦,按照长江的标准相对较小,但仍然为美国胡佛大坝的四分之三,《科学美国人》2009年报道。

Critics say the project makes little economic sense except as a temporary job creator. The reservoir will flood 18 square miles of prime farmland and displace 400,000 people, driving the cost of every kilowatt of generating capacity to $2,144 — triple that of the Three Gorges dam, according to Fan Xiao, a geologist who has fought the project for years.

批评人士说,该项目除了临时性的创造就业以外,没有多少经济意义。据多年来一直反对这个项目的范晓(音译)说,水库将淹没18平方英里的农田,迁移40万人口,从而使每千瓦的造价达到2224美元,是长江三峡项目的3倍。

The national reserve that critics say will be destroyed by the dam was, in fact, established to address concerns that the Three Gorges dam would endanger the fish population. Of the Yangtze’s 338 freshwater fish species, 189 live in the reserve — and many of those are found in no other river basin in China.

实际上,批评人士所说的因大坝建设即将受到破坏的国家保护区当初设立的目的本身就是解决三峡工程可能危及鱼类的问题。长江的338种淡水鱼,有189种生活在这里——许多鱼类在中国其它流域是找不到的。

Opponents had staved off the project in past years by bombarding public officials with letters and reports documenting what they saw as the dam’s environmental and economic flaws. Chongqing’s response was to address the major concern — the destruction of the rare-fish reserve — by moving the reserve farther from the dam site.

过去几年里,反对者给政府官员们写大量的信函及报告,报告他们所发现的大坝的环境及经济方面的缺陷,通过这种方式延缓了该工程的建设。重庆方面的反应是解决主要问题,即破坏珍稀的鱼类保护场所的问题,他们提议将保护区从大坝所在地点搬到较远的地方去。

When first established in the 1990s, the reserve covered about 500 fast-flowing miles of the Yangtze. Officials sliced about 95 miles away in 2005 to support construction of another dam. The latest change cuts an additional 62 miles.

90年代建立保护区时,区域覆盖了长江水流较急的500英里。2005年,为支持另一座大坝的修建,官方切掉了大约95英里。最新的变化将切掉另外62英里。

“The conservation zone is the last stretch of free-flowing water body on the Yangtze that is absolutely essential for the reproduction of many rare fishes,” Li Bo, the head of the group Friends of Nature, said in an interview. “Once the border of the conservation zone is moved, those fish would not have enough space to reproduce.”

在一次采访中自然之友组织的领导人李博(音译)说:“保护区是长江上河水可以自由流动的最后一段,对许多珍稀鱼类的繁殖时绝对必需的。一旦保护区的边界被移动,这些鱼类将失去足够的繁殖空间。”

Mr. Li has played a main role in pushing the project. The South China Morning Post reported this week that the environmental and agriculture ministries, which have authority over the reserve, had refused to release important documents about the reduction of the reserve.

李先生在推动这个保护项目中发挥了主要的作用。《南华早报》本周报道,对这个保护区有管辖权的环境部和农业部拒绝给出有关保护区缩小的重要文件。

Most telling, perhaps, was a review of the proposal to shorten the reserve conducted this autumn by a panel of 15 certified experts and 15 representatives of government agencies. The experts’ approval was required for the central government to act on the proposal.

也许最为明显的是今年秋季举行的对缩短保护区建议的审查,审查小组由15个认证专家和15个政府机构的代表组成。专家的批准是中央政府才建议采取行动所必需的。

Critics had hoped to lobby the panels, said Ma Jun, a former journalist who is the head of the Institute of Public and Environmental Affairs. Instead, the panel voted unanimously to approve the reduction — and told environmental groups only after the decision was made.

以前当过记者现为公共及环境事务研究所所长的马军先生(音译)说,批评人士曾希望游说这些专家。然而,专家小组却一致投票同意缩减,而且在做出决定后才告诉乐环保组织。

“We sort of expected at the end of the day they would vote to support it,” Mr. Ma said. “But 30 members, including really key experts — it’s quite a surprise.”

“我们估计当天结束时他们会投票支持,”马先生说。“但是全部30个评委啊,包括真正权威的专家,真出人意料。”

Mia Li contributed research.

Mia Li提供研究资料

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共计2条评论
Raymond发表于:2011-12-31 10:22:05

缩小或减少

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ringohan发表于:2011-12-31 10:33:31
Raymond:缩小或减少

You are right.

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